Jack Friar, CAFRE beef and sheep adviser, discusses fodder beat as an option for beef finishing diets.
It has always been said that fodder beet to cattle is like sweets to children.
It will always be the first thing they go for, and they will always want more of it.
Across the country fodder, beet has not been as widely used in beef finishing diets compared to dairy diets.
Enquires and interest have increased in recent years as beef producers become more aware of the benefits.
What is fodder beet, and what are the benefits?
Beet is a high energy, highly palatable feed source for cattle. It provides an excellent sugar energy source to help rumen function and drive dry matter intake.
Improving energy and dry matter intake will improve liveweight gain and condition in finishing cattle, particularly in young bulls where it can be more difficult to get the desired fat cover on finished carcases.
Depending on the variety grown, a typical analysis of beet:
- Dry Matter (DM%)= 17 to 23%
- Starch content (%)= 2%
- Sugars (%) = 65%
- Energy (ME) = 12 – 13 MJ ME/kg DM
- Crude protein (CP%) = 7%
- Fibre (NDF %) = 19.5%
Overall, farmers should look to feed a beet variety that has a higher dry matter content which will have higher energy levels in its fresh form and therefore deliver a better response from the animals.
In terms of energy, on average, 4.5kg fresh weight (FW) of beet is equivalent to 1kg of rolled barley.
Feeding rates for classes of stock
You can feed beet to weanlings (250 – 350kg) at a limited rate of 5 to 10kg FW/head/day, but they would normally be fed at the lower end of this scale.
Due to its low protein content, it is important when feeding beet that protein intake is not compromised.
Younger cattle should also be offered, for example, roughly 0.75kg of soya bean meal to balance the protein.
A suitable mineral must also be used as beet is low in minerals, particularly phosphorus, and must be balanced accordingly to ensure performance is not compromised.
When fed to cattle over 500kg, beet should not exceed 25kg FW/head/day. As for weanlings, a suitable protein supplementation and mineral should be provided, though at higher rates.
Due to its low fibre content silage or straw is required when feeding high levels to ensure digestive upsets are not caused.
Introducing fodder beet to the diet must be done slowly and stepped up.
Start at 5kg/head/day and increase gradually by 3 to 5kg every four days until the desired feeding level is reached.
If feeding exceeds 14kg FW/head/day, this should be split between two feeds to avoid rumen upsets. Alternatively, it can be used in a Total Mixed Ration (TMR).
Choosing the correct type of concentrate to supplement is important.
Aim for something with high levels of digestible fibre sources such as soya hulls. Also, avoid ingredients that contain high levels of sugars due to the levels already contained within beet.
Preparing fodder beet for feeding and storage
All harvested beet should be washed thoroughly to remove soil contamination and chopped to avoid choking and also to help improve intakes.
Feeding partly washed or unwashed beet over a prolonged time period may affect rumen function and can also affect the availability of minerals within the animal.
Due to high nitrate levels after harvesting, allow a delay of at least four days from harvest before feeding.
Beet can be stored outdoors but be wary of frost as frost-damaged beet can cause digestive upsets.
If kept outdoors, some users cover beet with straw to act as an insulation layer for protection from frost.
Beet can also be ensiled but first needs to be washed and chopped.
An absorbent feed such as beet pulp, citrus pulp or soya hulls must be ensiled along with the beet to soak up the large volumes of effluent produced.
A rule of thumb is to use a ratio of 1 tonne of absorbent for every 5 tonne of beet. This should retain most of the effluent.
In summary, fodder beet can be a cost-effective and very useful addition to the diets of growing and finishing cattle when storage, cleaning, and feeding are well managed.